Two-Phase Liquid Immersion Cooling

GIGABYTE has joined forces with Allied Control and 3M to offer a Two-Phase Liquid Immersion Cooling solution, allowing customers to drastically reduce their data center energy consumption and improve Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE), radically reducing operating costs and environmental impact.

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GIGABYTE has joined forces with Allied Control and 3M to offer a Two-Phase Liquid Immersion Cooling solution, allowing customers to drastically reduce their data center energy consumption and improve Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE), radically reducing operating costs and environmental impact.

4000x More Efficient at Removing Heat than Air

In a two-phase immersion cooled system, electronic components are submerged into a bath of dielectric heat transfer liquid, which is a much better heat conductor than air, water or oil. With a low boiling point (56°C vs. 100°C in water), the fluid boils on the surface of heat generating components, and rising vapor passively takes care of heat transfer.

In contrast to submersion oil cooling, two-phase immersion cooling liquids are clean, environmentally friendly and non-flammable. No pumps and jets are required to keep hardware cool. Circulation happens passively by the natural process of evaporation and without spending any extra energy. It is this simplicity that eliminates conventional cooling hardware and results in better cooling efficiency. Compared to traditional air, water or oil cooling, this passive process results in the use of much less energy.

Advantages of Two-Phase Immersion Cooling

  • Higher efficiency and energy savings (possible >90% compared to air cooling)
  • Reduced capital and operational expenses
  • Improved performance & reliability – components not subject to temperature variations, reducing failure potential. And no cooling fans required, eliminating component degradation from vibration.
  • Allows higher data center density - as much as 252kW per rack, with less supporting infrastructure
  • Works in confined spaces and extreme environments (hot & humid etc).
  • Lower maintenance requirement - passive cooling system means no unnecessary parts to build or service, useful especially for remote locations such as edge computing stations
  • Extremely clean – airflow, dust and noise are eliminated.
  • Reduced environmental impact – environmentally friendly fluid with zero ozone depletion potential
  • Inherent fire protection - non-flammable

The Passive 2-Phase Immersion Cooling Cycle

Immersion Cooling Infrastructure – Allied Control

Headquartered in Hong Kong, Allied Control is a pioneer in building the most efficient cooling solutions for high density electronics, and the first to successfully implement liquid immersion technology in commercial operations since 2012. Allied Control have also created the world’s largest immersion cooling data centers with 40MW and 120MW IT load capacities. They are an official Technology Partner of 3M for immersion cooling fluids, and have won the both the DCD (Data Center Dynamics) “Future Thinking and Design Concepts” Award and the Best Green ICT Award for the Most Energy Efficient Data Center (PUE 1.01)

Immersion Cooling Fluid – 3M

3M has a long-held leadership position in immersion cooling fluids, beginning in the 1950s when 3M introduced its first dielectric fluorochemical heat transfer fluids for direct contact cooling for military avionics. Over the past five years, 3M engineered fluids have been used in server cooling and have been recognized by the industry for best in class energy efficiency.

GIGABYTE uses and recommends 3M Fluorinert FC-72 fluid for a two-phase immersion cooling system. FC-72 is a clear, colorless, non-conductive, non-flammable, residue free, thermally and chemically stable liquid. FC-72 has an extremely narrow boiling range, so its composition will not deviate with time, insuring consistent transport properties.

3M Fluorinert liquids have among the highest dielectric strength and electrical resistivity of all organic fluids, much better in fact than air. And unlike hydrocarbon liquids such as mineral oil, 3M Fluorinert liquids are completely fluorinated. This means they have little or no solvency for hydrocarbons. Components taken out of 3M Fluorinert liquid also dry out easily, and won't be wet, sticky or oily. There is no need to prepare rubber mats, tissues or other materials when taking the servers out of the liquid for maintenance.

Attribute NameValue
Product Series FC-72
Application Category Electronic Testing, Heat Transfer
Applications Dielectric Bath,
Electronic Testing,
Heat Transfer,
Power Electronic Cooling
Boiling Point 56 °C
Boiling Point Range 50-99 °C
Brand Fluorinert
Density 1.68 g/cm³
Dielectric Strength Range >40 ( 0.1" gap, kV)
Fluorocarbon Solubility Very High
GWP (IPCC 2007) >5000 (100 yr ITH)
GWP Range High
Hydrocarbon Solubility Low
Max Use Temp Range <250° C
Plastic Elastomer Compatibility Excellent
Pour Point -90 °C

Immersion Cooling Servers with GIGABYTE

GIGABYTE is an industry leader in server systems for High Performance Computing, an application that is particularly suited to immersion cooling due to the high power consumption and heat generated by high performance processors. GIGABYTE can easily modify our standard server products to make them fully compatible with an immersion cooling system. GIGABYTE has also designed an Immersion Cooling POC (Proof of Concept) Unit for testing and validation. This unit is fully compatible with our 2U form factor servers. The unit can also be modified on request to suit our other form factor (1U or 4U) models.

GIGABYTE GPU Server Lineup & Immersion Cooling POC Unit Compatibility
Form FactorIntelAMD
Compatible with Standard Unit



Compatible with Customized Unit



Immersion Cooling POC (Proof of Concept) Unit

General GBT Part Number 25STZ-G25000-ACR
ACL Model No. 02U-19IN-2PIC-RD-GL-PM Tank Rev.A
Size HxWxD (mm) 1,540 x 660 x 540 mm
Weight (kg) 160 kg (Not including fluid and server)
Power Consumption (W) 190 W (Max)
Power Source 110/220 VAC, 50-60Hz
Radiator 2 unit
Carbon Filter Yes (pump can be used when re-filling fluid)
Front Glass Yes (alternative model: non-glass type)
Wheel Yes
Cooling Cooling Type Two-phase immersion cooling
Fluid 3M NOVEC series, 3M Fluorinert series)
Cooling Capacity (W) 4,000 W (9213BTU/hr) @ 25°C liquid-ambient (25°C dT)
Max Pressure @ 25°C 2kgf/cm2 (28.5psi)
Operating Temperature 10 to 35°C
Display Type OLED
Flow Rate 6.8LPM (1.8GPM)
Radiator Aluminum, 9 x 120mm fans
Control Fan & pump RPM by control display
Management Monitor Via WIFI (WIFI system included)
Measurement Item Total Facility Energy (KW, KW/h) – Daily, Total
IT Equipment Energy (KW, KW/h) – Daily, Total
PUE – Daily, Total
Server support Input Capacity 2U (open area for system installation = 90 x 450 mm)
Power Source 110/220 VAC, 50-60Hz
Power for Server 3,000W (Max)
Power Plug for server IEC 320 C13 Type - 2 port
IO Port LAN x 4 port (RJ45), USB(2.0) x 2 port
VGA x 1 port