What is 5G? An Introduction to 5G Networks and Applications

5G communications has been a very hot topic in recent years. Due to some of the key attributes such as faster data transfer rate, low latency and high connectivity, people can start to develop applications including industry 4.0, autonomous cars, and build a smart city etc. However, until the day comes when 5G is widely applied in our everyday technologies, people still wonder what exactly is 5G? How is it different from 4G? Despite a proclaimed faster data transfer rate, how will it impact the next tech evolution?
The 5G era has officially begun when Korea and the United States competed to be the first to commercialize 5G business in April, 2019. 5G is to become the revolutionary technology that could change the daily lives of billions of people around the world.

Other power nations of the world such as China, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the European Union are all initializing their own plans to commercialize 5G. And by the end of 2020, the new technologies and applications are expected to bring huge global economic benefits. 《Glossary: What is 5G?
How Did We Get Here?
How is 5G different from the previous generations? The answer is – information. 1G was an analog phase when mobile devices were only capable of making dial-up phone calls. 2G marked the first transition into digital when data was transmitted in Kbps, and mobile devices were then able to transfer messages in short text forms known as SMS. 3G was a breakthrough as data was finally transmitted in Mbps, and mobile devices were able to connect to the Internet and expand its applications beyond voice and texts. The world was in awe as these smart phones turned a new page for mobile communications, and by the time when 4G arrived with more than 10 times faster and stable connectivity of its previous generation, we were able to enjoy high quality and even live videos. From 1G to 4G we were able to connect with each other through the ever-improving mobile communications, and as we’ve achieved most of our basic communication needs with this current state of technology, we are looking at improving upon the convenience of its applications. We have high hopes that 5G will bring the prospects and connect us to the Internet of Things.
The 5 characteristics of a 5G network
At the height of 4G technology we are enjoy the convenience and service that we could not achieve in the past. However we crave more. With artificial intelligence, big data, and smart Internet of Things on the horizon, we need ever more data capacity, faster transfer rate, lower latency, and better connectivity to allow cross platform devices to speak to each other intelligently. The demand for more equipment and improved efficiency in the equipment is also at a new height as we prepare for the upcoming stage of 5G.
The Three Core Aspects of 5G
In 5G, people expect faster network speeds. The expectation for 5G extends to having a fast data transfer rate even when there were multiple users accessing the resource, and uninterrupted signal and bandwidth free from terrain or any conditions while traveling.

5G is a multi-purpose network. In its simplest concept, 5G has three main cores:
● eMBB that provides high bandwidth + large capacity, so that 4K/8K movies are no longer a problem. Examples including smart phones, AR/VR, 4K/8K audio and video, multi-party video chats, and HD video applications etc.
● mMTC that can carry a multi-device connection to enable the applications in building smart homes and smart cities. Examples including medical care, Internet of Vehicles, and smart recognition etc.
● URLLC that provides ultra-high reliability + ultralow latency, allowing drones and driverless cars to be road safe. Examples including smart manufacturing, autonomous vehicles, drones, remote surgery, and VR live broadcast etc.
How Is the 5G Network Built
● Service Network
     ■ Use edge computing and SDN control to build a flexible application service computing system to significantly reduce service delay.
● Core Network
     ■ Use SDN to intelligently control the core network and service network, and build a flexible network architecture.
     ■ Utilize network virtualization and network slicing technology to achieve the possibility of a physical network that performs SDN and serves various functions.
● Access Network
    ■ Multi-configuration wireless radio design for different applications.
    ■ Small Cell: 5G communications will be built based on small cells. In comparison to macro cells used by previous generations that exhibit huge spaces with relative high cost to build, small cells have the competitive advantage in execution. Due to its high spectrum and short serviceable range of 200 to 300 meters they need to be deployed in close radius, small cells are often built for area services of high frequency and hotspots. Small cells will become a trend in 5G development because 70% of network equipment in a 5G infrastructure will be servicing remote cloud computing and only 30% will be servicing mobile users, which makes it ideal for a high density deployment in the forms of street lights and posts etc. The development of 5G will set off a small base station construction boom, which will provide many rising opportunities in the industry. 《Learn More: 5G CrowdCell Emerged into Your Life
Macro Cells & Small Cells in 5G Network
Decentralized Computing of MEC
Since 5G will be built in high density and close radius small cells, MEC (Multi-access Edge Computing) technology becomes utterly important. MEC is a kind of decentralized computing concept of nearby computing, which is to set the computing unit closer to the local network where the data source is located for analysis and calculation. Unlike in previous generation of network where all data big or small are sent back to the cloud for analysis, MEC reduces the time required for data to travel through different terminals and clouds, and allows a lower budget on network bandwidth of Internet service. This is a similar concept to that of cashe. The origin server is often asked to deliver services in different formats to various devices such as 360p, 720p, or 1080p of video sources, which in term increases the loading. However, when the concept of cashe is applied in MEC, the data is located and processed in local networks close to the source, which increases the speed of network while reduces transfer time and latency, and improves the overall service.

Learn More: 《Solutions: 5G MEC Networking Platform
5G for Internet of Vehicles
MEC opens up the opportunities in server applications during this transition phase of 5G, and allows the advancement in Internet of Vehicles to move forward in different areas.
● V2V (vehicle-to-vehicle) The modern cars are often equipped with many communications systems in the forms of applications, and such trend will only continue to become the norm as they use local cells as outlets to communicate.
● V2I (vehicle-to-infrastructure) Traffic infrastructure will benefit from IoV. For example, through communications between cars and infrastructures, traffic lights will receive information such as road conditions and traffic patterns and being able to pass the information through cloud to on-road vehicles to ensure a safe and smooth traffic condition.
● V2P (vehicle-to-pedestrian) Information such as speed and direction of the car is very important for pedestrians. A concise and timely communication can remind pedestrians of traffic conditions and achieve warning effect to further decrease the likelihood of road accidents in high traffic intersections.
● V2N (vehicle-to-network) V2N is critical not only in advancing safer traffic environment, but also in autonomous vehicles. At the same time, Internet of Vehicles between governments and car dealers could form a hybrid cloud architecture for end users, which will demonstrate the business opportunities in all aspects of MEC applications.
《Learn More: An Autonomous Vehicles Network with 5G URLLC Technology
Internet of Vehicles in 5G network
5G is the biggest turn of event in technology and represents plenty of opportunities for new business ventures. GIGABYTE has continued to invest in new technologies such as AIoT, cloud services, MEC applications, smart devices, and even IoV and autonomous vehicles. We look forward to use the knowledge we built in servers and cross-domain solutions to collaborate with other key players in the industry to construct an ecosystem which will accelerate the commercialization of 5G services, and provide corresponding solutions for different application.
Realtion Tags
Multi-access Edge Computing
SDN (Software Defined Networking)
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